Diabetes primarily occurs due to the lack of insulin in the body. Insulin is made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood.
The metabolic process of our body transform the food that we eat into glucose and with the help of the hormone insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. If there is an inadequate secretion of insulin or inadequate usage of insulin, then diabetes results. In this condition the cells are not able to absorb the glucose in the blood & the percentage of glucose in the blood increases. Some of this glucose is also passed out along with urine.
There are two main types of diabetes – type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin due to the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes—the most common form of diabetes—is caused when the body has more glucose and the insulin produced by body cannot absorb the excess glucose. People who are lethargic, do not do enough physical work, eat heavy food like meat, egg, sugar, ghee develop digestion problem. The excess of calories get transformed in glucose and gets accumulated in the body. Body cannot make enough insulin to absorb the excess glucose, and this excess of glucose is drained through urine. Physical inactivity and obesity are strongly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin resistance is a condition which is closely associated with diabetes. In this condition the body’s muscle, fat, and liver cells do not use insulin effectively.Insulin resistance is a common condition in people who are overweight or obese. Muscle, fat, and liver cells stop responding properly to insulin, forcing the pancreas to compensate by producing extra insulin. Which is not always possible. This in long term lead to diabetes.
In some people with diabetes, an abnormal increase in glucose production by the liver also contributes to high blood glucose levels. Normally, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon when blood glucose and insulin levels are low. Glucagon stimulates the liver to produce glucose and release it into the bloodstream. But when blood glucose and insulin levels are high after a meal, glucagon levels drop, and the liver stores the excess glucose for future, when it is needed. In some people liver produces glucose even when the insulin and blood glucose are high and this excess glucose causes diabetes.
Sometimes diabetes happen due to excessive use of medicines. Medicines slow down the digestion process, and glucose in the blood does not get transformed into energy resulting in diabetes.
Diabetes is sometimes hereditary. Heredity plays an important part in determining who is likely to develop type 1 diabetes. Genes are passed down from the biological parent to the child.
Since the main cause of diabetes is misbalance of glucose and insulin level in the body, the solution to the problem lies in either injecting insulin from outside or controlling the food habit – Only eating food that can be absorbed by our body. Few simple precautions are as below:
Recommended food habits for diabetic person –
- Have milk or dalia(broken wheat) in your breakfast. The milk should be lukewarm, neither too hot nor too cold.
- Make a Chappati of wheat flour, gramflour, jowar with husk and eat it for lunch and dinner.
- Add green vegetables such as bottle gourd, snake gourd, sponge gourd, bitter gourd to your diet
- Eat boiled vegetables & avoid fried vegetables(including potatoes).
- Eat salad of carrots, radish, tomato, cucumber, lemon during lunch.
- Eat moong, bengal gram, Aahar (toor) and black lentil.
- Have curd.
- Eat fruits when you feel like snacking.
- Avoid refined flour, rice, cake, pastries, chutney, tea, coffee, meat,
- Avoid fruits like dates, banana, raisins, potato, grapes, turnip, sweet potato, apple, pear, mango, guava, pumpkin.